Funeral for a Friend

Funeral for a Friend

The acquittal of Donald Trump was an outrage – one of many over the past three years. But this one was different.

It’s not just that Republican Senators voted against hearing key witnesses like John Bolton who had important new testimony. It’s not that, with the exception of Mitt Romney, they voted to give the President no consequences, despite many of them privately saying that he was guilty, and despite some even admitting that what he did was impeachable. It’s not even the frightening new legal precedent that their vote ushered in, that a President can wrap his own reelection campaign into official U.S. policy – even if it diverges from publicly known official U.S. policy, even if it involves coercing another country to interfere in a U.S. election – if he believes that his own reelection is in the “public interest.”

Of course, it’s all of those things.

But it’s also the sheer brazenness of it all. Those Senators looked their country in the eye, looked at the Constitution, and said “all of this matters less to us than continuing to enable Donald Trump.”

In a moving and heartfelt speech before the Senate, Adam Schiff said, “If right doesn’t matter, it doesn’t matter how good the Constitution is. It doesn’t matter how brilliant the Framers were. Doesn’t matter how good or bad our advocacy in this trial is. Doesn’t matter how well written the oath of impartiality is. If right doesn’t matter, we’re lost. If the truth doesn’t matter, we’re lost.”

Those Senators made their statement loud and clear: to them, right doesn’t matter, truth doesn’t matter. Trump matters.

In an odd way, it was liberating. Many of us on the left have said over the past three years that there just has to come a time when Donald Trump will go too far, when Republican lawmakers will be shocked into a reawakening of what they once said their values were, when they will stop and say “my God, look what we have become – this is not us,” when they will finally serve as a moral bulwark and a check on this President’s power.

Their vote on Thursday made it crystal clear: for the vast majority of Republicans, that moment will never come. Nothing will be too much, too far, too grotesque to abandon Donald Trump and look elsewhere for leadership. They will not change. Trump will not change. He will not face consequences. He will only continuously avoid consequences, laugh at our outrage, and become further emboldened by it all. The moment of introspection and moral conscience that we have expected and hoped for from Republicans will not happen. It is a fantasy and a waste of mental energy. This is what we have.

It is sad, like the death of a loved one after years of hoping and praying that they would pull through from a long-lingering illness. But it is also freeing. There is no longer any need to waste time puzzling over what’s behind their actions – cult of personality, support for policy, blackmail, bribery, fear, political calculation, power grab. It doesn’t matter. They are what they are. They’re doing what they’re doing. It doesn’t matter why they’re burning down the house. What matters is that they’re doing it, water is desperately needed, and sitting around trying to figure out the cause of the fire or trying to reason with it wastes time while the house gets further engulfed in flames.

From here on, the course forward is clear, and the obstacles are clear. Donald Trump and the Republicans will do what they’re going to do, and it will be awful. Beyond policy, there will be voter suppression, cheating, foreign interference on a level that we have never experienced, deepfake videos and audio, and some of the ugliest campaign tactics that this country has seen.

But our energies must be focused on overcoming all of that to defeat Trump in November and to get as many Democrats elected as possible – it’s time for pissed off pragmatism. Some tools:

  • GET OFF SOCIAL MEDIA. You’re preaching to the converted.
  • Vote in the Primaries/Caucuses to have a say in who the Democrats’ Presidential nominee is.
  • Accept that our first choice may not be the Democrats’ final nominee, and we need to work our butts off for them anyway.
  • Volunteer for and donate to campaigns for House and Senate.
  • Spend our weekends registering nonvoters, who outnumber those who voted for either Clinton or Trump in 2016. Organizations that do this include the League of Women Voters.
  • Get involved in organizations like the Payback Project who are working specifically to defeat Republican Senators.
  • Take Election Day off work to drive voters to and from the polls all day.
  • Vote.

If all our efforts still don’t make a difference, we have a much bigger problem, but we have to do all that we can to ensure we do not face four more years of Donald Trump: America cannot survive it.

– rob rünt



What About Crowdstrike?

What About Crowdstrike?

Crowdstrike is the cybersecurity company that investigated the 2016 hacking of the DNC and Clinton Campaign servers and found the hack to have come from two Russian groups that they nicknamed “Cozy Bear” and “Fancy Bear.” U.S. Intelligence agreed with this assessment. Robert Mueller’s report (p. 36-50) also agreed, identifying the groups as Russian Military Units 26165 and 74455 of the GRU, an intelligence agency of the Russian military. Mueller issued indictments for 12 members of those groups.

During the House Intelligence Committee impeachment hearings, Republicans like U.S. Rep. Devin Nunes (R-CA) and U.S. Rep. Jim Jordan (R-OH) echoed a Russia-originated conspiracy theory that Ukraine had actually hacked the DNC and Clinton servers to frame Russia, and were assisted by Crowdstrike, because its owner is “Ukrainian.” Crowdstrike’s co-owner, Dmitri Alpertovitch, is a Russian-born American citizen.

Developing evidence that Crowdstrike was part of a Ukrainian effort to meddle in the 2016 election would help Putin by shifting blame from Russia and muddying the waters of the findings of Robert Mueller and the U.S. intelligence community. It would also give Trump an opportunity to claim that his 2016 victory was made without Russian interference, or at least in spite of Ukrainian interference.

“I would like you to do us a favor though because our country has been through a lot and Ukraine knows a lot about it. I would like you to find out what happened with this whole situation with Ukraine, they say Crowdstrike.”

Donald J. Trump
President of the United States
(From transcript of 7/25/19 phone call between President Trump and Ukrainian President Zelensky)

“I don’t think that raising 2016 elections or Vice President Biden or these things I consider to be conspiracy theories […are…] things that we should be pursuing as part of our national security strategy with Ukraine.”

Kurt Volker
Former US Special Envoy to Ukraine

“Based on questions and statements I have heard, some of you on this committee appear to believe that Russia and its security services did not conduct a campaign against our country — and that perhaps, somehow, for some reason, Ukraine did. This is a fictional narrative that has been perpetrated and propagated by the Russian security services themselves.”

Fiona Hill
Former White House Adviser, Former Senior Director for European and Russian Affairs

For more info, visit Trump-Ukraine Central

– rob rünt

Who Else Appears to Have Been Helping Trump?

Who Else Appears to Have Been Helping Trump?

According to testimonies during the House Intelligence Committee’s impeachment hearings people who appear to have been involved in helping the President commit potentially impeachable acts were:

  • Rudolph Giuliani, personal attorney for Donald Trump
  • Mick Mulvaney, White House Chief of Staff and head of Office of Management and Budget
  • Mike Pompeo, U.S. Secretary of State
  • Rick Perry, U.S. Secretary of Energy
  • Gordon Sondland, U.S. Ambassador to the European Union
  • Kurt Volker, former US Special Envoy to Ukraine
  • Ulrich Brechbuehl, Counselor to Secretary of State Mike Pompeo
  • Lisa Kenna, State Department Executive Secretary
  • Lev Parnas, associate of Rudolph Giuliani
  • Igor Fruman, associate of Rudolph Giuliani
  • Viktor Shoken, former Ukrainian Prosecutor General
  • Yuriy Lutsenko, former Ukrainian Prosecutor General


“I encountered an irregular, informal channel of US policy-making with respect to Ukraine, unaccountable to Congress, a channel that included then-Special Envoy Kurt Volker, US Ambassador to the European Union Gordon Sondland, Secretary of Energy Rick Perry, White House Chief of Staff Mick Mulvaney, and, as I subsequently learned, Mr. Giuliani. I was clearly in the regular channel, but I was also in the irregular one to the extent that Ambassadors Volker and Sondland including me in certain conversations. Although this irregular channel was well-connected in Washington, it operated mostly outside of official State Department channels.”

William Taylor
Acting U.S. Ambassador to Ukraine

“Over the course of 2018 and 2019 I became increasingly aware of an effort by Rudy Giuliani and others, including his associates, Lev Parnas and Igor Fruman, to run a campaign to smear Ambassador Yovanovitch and other officials at the US embassy in Kiev. The chief agitators on the Ukrainian side of this effort were some of those same corrupt former prosecutors I had encountered, particularly [inaudible 00:12:50] and Viktor Shoken. They were now peddling false information in order to extract revenge against those who had exposed their misconduct, including US diplomats, Ukrainian anti-corruption officials, and reform-minded civil society groups in Ukraine. During the late spring and summer of 2019 I became alarmed as those efforts bore fruit. They led to the ouster of Ambassador Yovanovitch and hampered US efforts to establish rapport with the new Zelensky administration in Ukraine.”

George Kent
Deputy Assistant U.S. Secretary of State for Eastern Europe and the Caucuses

“I do not understand Mr. Giuliani’s motives for attacking me, nor can I offer an opinion on whether he believe the allegations he spread about me. Clearly, no one at the State Department did. What I can say is that Mr. Giuliani should have known those claims were suspect, coming as they reportedly did from individuals with questionable motives and with reason to believe that their political and financial ambitions would be stymied by our anti-corruption policy in Ukraine.”

Marie/Masha Yovanovitch
Former US Ambassador to Ukraine

“From July 7, 2017, until September 27th, 2019, I was the lead US diplomat dealing with Russia’s war on Ukraine. My role was not some irregular channel, but the official channel.”

Kurt Volker
Former US Special Envoy to Ukraine

“The problem was that despite the unanimous positive assessment and recommendations of those of us who were part of the US presidential delegation that attended the inauguration of President Zelensky, President Trump was receiving a different negative narrative about Ukraine and President Zelensky. That narrative was fueled by accusations from Ukraine’s then Prosecutor General [Yuriy Lutsenko] and conveyed to the President by former Mayor Rudy Giuliani.”

Kurt Volker
Former US Special Envoy to Ukraine

“After weeks of reassuring the Ukrainians that it was just a scheduling issue, I decided to tell President Zelensky that we had a problem with the information reaching President Trump from Mayor Giuliani. I did so in a bilateral meeting at a conference on Ukrainian economic reform in Toronto on July 2nd, 2019 where I led the US delegation.”

Kurt Volker
Former US Special Envoy to Ukraine

 “The suggestion that we were engaged in some irregular or rogue diplomacy is absolutely false. Everyone was in the loop. It was no secret.”

Gordon Sondland
U.S. Ambassador to the European Union

“We followed the president’s orders.”

Gordon Sondland
U.S. Ambassador to the European Union

“Secretary Perry, Ambassador Volker and I worked with Mr. Rudy Giuliani on Ukraine matters at the express direction of the president of the United States. We did not want to work with Mr. Giuliani. Simply put, we were playing the hand we were dealt.”

Gordon Sondland
U.S. Ambassador to the European Union

“That included communications with Secretary of State Pompeo, his Counselor Ulrich Brechbuehl, and Executive Secretary Lisa Kenna within the State Department. They knew what we were doing and why.”

Gordon Sondland
U.S. Ambassador to the European Union

 “We saw [Giuliani] often on television making these statements, and I had already brought to Ambassador Bolton’s attention the attacks, the smear campaign against Ambassador Yovanovitch, and expressed great regret about how this was unfolding. And, in fact, the shameful way in which Ambassador Yovanovitch was being smeared and attacked, and I’d asked if there was anything that we could do about it. And Ambassador Bolton had looked pained, basically indicated with body language that there was nothing much that we could do about it, and he then, in the course of that discussion, said that Rudy Giuliani was a hand grenade that was going to blow everyone up.”

Fiona Hill
Former White House Adviser, Former Senior Director for European and Russian Affairs

“Over the following months, it became apparent that Mr. Giuliani was having a direct influence on the foreign policy agenda that the Three Amigos were executing on the ground in Ukraine. In fact, at one point during a preliminary meeting of the inauguration delegation, someone wondered aloud about why Mr. Giuliani was so active in the media with respect to Ukraine. My recollection is that Ambassador Sondland stated, “Dammit Rudy. Every time Rudy gets involved he goes and f–s everything up.”

David Holmes
Counselor for Political Affairs at the US Embassy in Ukraine

“Mr. Lutsenko also claimed that he had never received $4.4 million in US funds intended for his office, and that there was a tape of a Ukrainian official saying that he was trying to help Hillary Clinton win the 2016 election.”

David Holmes
Counselor for Political Affairs at the US Embassy in Ukraine

“Around the same time, I became aware that Mr. Giuliani, a private lawyer, was taking a direct role in Ukrainian diplomacy.”

David Holmes
Counselor for Political Affairs at the US Embassy in Ukraine

For more info, visit Trump-Ukraine Central

– rob rünt

Is There Another Explanation for What Happened With Ukraine?

Is There Another Explanation for What Happened With Ukraine?

One strategy used by criminal defense attorneys, especially when they know that the evidence points clearly to their client’s guilt, is to present as many alternative theories as possible to muddy the waters and sow doubt in the minds of the jury. During the House Intelligence Committee’s impeachment hearings, many Republicans on the committee have taken on this role. This section addresses those theories.

  1. This was all part of official U.S. foreign policy 
  2. Trump wanted to root out corruption in Ukraine 
  3. Trump wanted the EU to pay its fair share of Ukraine aid 
  4. Trump was being fiscally responsible with U.S. tax dollars 
  5. The Ukrainians didn’t even know that aid was being withheld 
  6. There was no pressure on Ukraine – President Zelensky said so 
  7. Zelensky didn’t do what Trump wanted, so no crime 
  8. Trump said emphatically “no quid pro quo” 
  9. These were rogue operators – Trump was not involved 
  10. It was legitimate to ask Ukraine to investigate the Bidens 
  11. It was legitimate to ask Ukraine to investigate Crowdstrike 
  12. This is how politics works: we pressure other countries 
  13. The Democrats keep changing the charges 
  14. The hearings were unfair or illegitimate 
  15. All testimony was meaningless because the Whistleblower didn’t testify 
  16. All testimony was meaningless because few of the witnesses actually talked with President Trump 
  17. It looks bad, but who knows what was really in the President’s heart

For more info, visit Trump-Ukraine Central

– rob rünt

Definitive Timeline of Trump-Ukraine Events

Definitive Timeline of Trump-Ukraine Events

This timeline will be continuously updated as events unfold.

March 1990- December 1991: Fall of the Soviet Union. Putin claims to have resigned from the KGB, but many believe that he is still an agent, and is merely operating undercover in the office of the Mayor of Leningrad. Putin sees the fall of the Soviet empire as a humiliating disgrace, for which he blames the West, and particularly the United States. He will come to want to similarly humiliate the countries that he sees as responsible for his country’s disgrace. He will also seek to reunite the Soviet Union, of which Ukraine was a part.

December 31, 1999: Yeltsin unexpectedly resigns and appoints Putin acting President of Russia.

March 26, 2000: Putin is elected President of Russia.

Late 2004: Pro-Russian Viktor Yanukovych of the Party of Regions wins election as President of Ukraine, but allegations of fraud cause the European Union to reject the results. Ukrainians stage street protests in what comes to be known as the Orange Revolution. A new vote is taken, and Yanukovych loses.

June 2005: Paul Manafort develops a strategic plan to promote the interests of Russia and Vladimir Putin. In the plan, Manafort says that “this model can greatly benefit the Putin Government if employed at the correct levels with the appropriate commitment to success.”

2006:  Based on this strategic plan, Russian oligarch Oleg Deripaska signs Manafort to a $10 million-a-year agreement, and Manafort does the work through a corporation called LOAV Ltd.

March 2006: Ukraine’s Party of Regions hires Manafort’s company Davis Manfort to improve the party’s image. The party gains several seats in Ukraine’s Parliament, and Yanukovych becomes Prime Minister in August.

2007:  The Party of Regions’ secret ledger reveals that Manafort received nearly two dozen under-the-table payments totaling nearly $13 million. Manafort denies the allegation.

December 2007: Yanukovych is ousted as Prime Minister and is replaced by Yulia Tymoshenko.

February 2010: Yanukovych is elected President of Ukraine, with help from Manafort.

February 22, 2014:  Yanukovych is removed by popular uprising and flees to Russia. Ukrainian government officials begin investigating corruption in the country including the Ukrainian energy company Burisma.

March 1, 2014: Russia invades and annexes Crimea, a part of the former Soviet country of Ukraine.

March 7, 2014: Lev Parnas has first contact with Donald Trump at a Florida golf tournament.

May 13, 2014: Hunter Biden, son of U.S. Vice President Joe Biden, joins the board of Burisma.

May 25, 2014: Petro Poroshenko is elected President of Ukraine.

September 2014:  Manafort goes to Ukraine to help Yanukovych’s Party of Regions regain power, rebranded by Manafort as the Oppo Bloc.

February 10, 2015: Viktor Shokin becomes Prosecutor General of Ukraine.

Early 2015: Top State Department aide George Kent contacts Vice President Biden’s office with concerns about Hunter Biden working for Burisma, given that Biden is America’s point person on Ukraine. Biden’s office dismisses the concern, stating that Biden’s other son Beau has cancer, and Biden is too consumed with that to look into what Hunter may be doing.

June 16, 2015: Donald Trump announces run for Presidency.

September 24, 2015: U.S. Ambassador to Ukraine Geoffrey Pyatt publicly accuses Viktor Shokin of failing “to successfully fight internal corruption.”

October 8, 2015: In testimony before the U.S. Senate, Assistant U.S. Secretary of State Victoria Nuland states that Viktor Shokin’s office “has to be reinvented as an institution that serves the citizens of Ukraine, rather than ripping them off.”

December 8, 2015: Consistent with official U.S. foreign policy and the consensus of EU leaders, Vice President Joe Biden tells Ukrainian leaders to fire Shokin or risk losing over $1 billion in loan guarantees.

February 10, 2016: The International Monetary Fund threatens to stop a bailout for Ukraine unless the country addresses corruption.

February 11, 2016: Biden urges Poroshenko to root out corruption in Ukraine.

March 28, 2016: Paul Manafort becomes Chairman of the Trump Campaign – free of charge.

March 29, 2016: Viktor Shokin is removed as Ukraine’s Prosecutor General.  Yuri Lutsenko becomes new Prosecutor General of Ukraine.

June 3, 2016: The U.S. government guarantees the $1 billion in loans to Ukraine.

June 14, 2016: News breaks that Russians have hacked into the DNC computer system.

June 20, 2016: Paul Manafort becomes Trump Campaign Chair.

July 18-21, 2016: Republican National Convention. Manafort’s team presents the only addition to the Republican Party Platform: weakening the policy of providing military aid to help Ukraine defend itself against Russian aggression.

July 21, 2016: Donald Trump is nominated as the Republican Party candidate for President.

July 25-28, 2016: Democratic National Convention.

August 19, 2016: Paul Manafort resigns as Trump Campaign Chair after reports of payments that he received for his pro-Russian political work in Ukraine.

November 8, 2016: Election Day. Donald Trump is elected President of United States.

January 11, 2017: Politico reports that Ukrainian officials (but not the leadership within the Ukrainian government) had “helped Clinton’s allies research damaging information on Trump and his advisers” during the campaign.

January 12, 2017: Ukraine completes and closes investigations of Burisma.

January 20, 2017: Donald Trump is sworn in as 45th President of the United States.

April 21, 2017: In an interview with AP’s Julia Pace, Trump first floats a conspiracy theory that Ukraine may have helped falsely implicate Russia for interference in the 2016 election. “How about this — they [the DNC and Clinton Campaign] get hacked, and the FBI goes to see them, and they won’t let the FBI see their server… Why wouldn’t [John] Podesta and Hillary Clinton allow the FBI to see the server? They brought in another company that I hear is Ukrainian-based… That’s what I heard. I heard it’s owned by a very rich Ukrainian, that’s what I heard.”

April 28, 2017: Trump brings up the Ukraine conspiracy theory again in an interview with the Washington Examiner.

June 8, 2017: Giuliani meets with Poroshenko and Lutsenko.

July 25, 2017: Trump tweets about “Ukrainian efforts to sabotage Trump campaign.”

October 30, 2017: Former Trump Campaign Manager Paul Manafort is indicted by federal grand jury for conspiracy against the United States, conspiracy to launder money, and failing to file reports of foreign bank accounts.

January 23, 2018: At a Council on Foreign Relations event, former Vice President Joe Biden boasts about his 2015-2016 pressure campaign on Ukraine. “I said ‘you’re not getting the billion. I’m going to be leaving here in, I think it was about six hours.’ I looked at them and said: ‘I’m leaving in six hours. If the prosecutor is not fired, you’re not getting the money,’ Well, son of a b____. He got fired. And they put in place someone who was solid at the time.”

April 19, 2018: The Washington Post reports that President Trump has hired Rudolph Giuliani as his personal lawyer to help defend him in the Mueller investigation

April 2018: Soviet-born Florida real estate businessmen Lev Parnas and Igor Fruman – associates of Rudolph Giuliani – attend a pro-Trump super PAC event at Trump International in Washington DC. They talk with Trump and disparage U.S. Ambassador to Ukraine Marie Yovanovitch.

May 1, 2018: Lev Parnas and Igor Fruman meet with President Trump at the White House.

May 2, 2018: Ukrainian officials stop helping Robert Mueller’s investigation into Russian election interference because they don’t want to damage their relationship with the Trump Administration.

May 4, 2018: U.S. Senators Robert Menendez (D-NJ), Richard Durbin (D-IL) and Patrick Leahy (D-VT) write to Lutsenko, and urge him to continue working with Mueller.

May 9, 2018: Lev Parnas posts a photo of himself meeting with U.S. Rep. Pete Sessions (R-TX) in Sessions’s Washington DC office, where Parnas and a business partner pledge to raise $20,000 for Sessions. Sessions then writes to the State Department requesting the dismissal of Ambassador Yovanovitch.

May 17, 2018: Through a newly formed business called Global Energy Producers, Lev Parnas and Igor Fruman donate $325,000 to America First Action, a pro-Trump Super-PAC. (In later indictments of Parnas and Fruman, prosecutors allege that this money actually came from a $1.26 million private lending transaction two days earlier).

May 21, 2018: Parnas posts a picture on Facebook of himself and Igor Fruman having breakfast with Donald Trump Jr. in Beverly Hills.

December 5, 2018: Rudolph Giuliani meets with former Prime Minister of Ukraine Yulia Tymoshenko (January-September 2005, December 2007-March 2010) to discuss “security issues, including the escalation of Russia’s war against Ukraine and the US assistance.”

Late 2018: Giuliani speaks with former Prosecutor General of Ukraine Viktor Shokin.

January 2019: Giuliani meets with Prosecutor General of Ukraine Yuri Lutsenko in New York.

Mid-February 2019: Giuliani meets again with Lutsenko in Warsaw, Poland.

February 1, 2019: Interior Minister of Ukraine Arsen Avakov expresses concern to Ambassador Yovanovitch that Ukraine does not want to be caught up in U.S. domestic political campaigns.

March 6, 2019: U.S. Ambassador Yovanovitch gives a speech in Ukraine in which she states, “To ensure the integrity of anticorruption institutions, the Special Anticorruption Prosecutor [Lutsenko] must be replaced. Nobody who has been recorded coaching suspects on how to avoid corruption charges can be trusted to prosecute those very same cases.”

March 20, 2019: Lev Parnas facilitates an interview in which Yuri Lutsenko tells John Solomon, conservative Vice President of Digital Video for political journal The Hill, that Yovanovitch had given him “a list of people whom we should not prosecute.” While the U.S. State Department declares the claim an “outright fabrication,” President Trump retweets the story.

March 24, 2019: Trump Jr. tweets “We need more [Germany Ambassador] @RichardGrenell‘s and less of these jokers as ambassadors,” referring to Yovanovitch.

March 26, 2019: Giuliani speaks with Secretary of State Mike Pompeo.

March 29, 2019: Giuliani speaks with Pompeo again.

April 1, 2019: The Hill’sJohn Solomon speaks with Yuri Lutsenko and reports that Ukraine has opened a probe into Joe Biden’s efforts to fire Shokin, and a possible connection to Burisma. Lutsenko expresses a desire to present his evidence to U.S. Attorney General William Barr.

Mid-April 2019: Hunter Biden ends his term as a Burisma board member.

April 18, 2019: Lutsenko publicly retracts his claim that Yovanovitch had given him a “do not prosecute” list.

April 18, 2019: Robert Mueller releases his report on Russian interference in the 2016 election.

April 21, 2019: Volodymyr Zelensky is elected President of Ukraine on an anti-corruption agenda. President Trump calls Zelensky to congratulate him. A White House readout is drafted stating that Trump pledged to help Zelensky “root out corruption,” but corruption was not mentioned on the call, according to a transcript released later by the White House.

April 23, 2019: Giuliani tweets “Now Ukraine is investigating Hillary campaign and DNC conspiracy with foreign operatives including Ukrainian and others to affect 2016 election. And there’s no Comey to fix the result.”

April 24, 2019: Foreign Service Director General Carol Perez tells Ambassador Yovanovitch to come back to Washington immediately. In Washington, Deputy Secretary of State John Sullivan tells her that she has done nothing wrong, but that her ambassadorship will be ending after nearly a year pressure from President Trump.

April 25, 2019: In an interview with Fox News, Trump brings up the conspiracy theory that Ukraine interfered in the 2016, election, saying, “I would imagine [William Barr] would want to see this. People have been saying this whole – the concept of Ukraine, they have been talking about it actually for a long time.”

April 25, 2019: Joe Biden announces that he is running for President.

May 1, 2019: The New York Times reports that Joe Biden’s pressure on Ukraine to remove Shokin may have been connected to Shokin’s investigation of Burisma.

May 7, 2019: Bloomberg News reports that the Burisma investigation had long been dormant when Biden pressured Ukraine to remove Shokin.

Separately, Zelensky holds a 3-hour meeting with top advisers. While the agenda is supposed to be about energy policy, most of the time is consumed with how to navigate Giuliani’s machinations and avoid being dragged into U.S. domestic politics.

May 9, 2019: Giuliani tells the New York Times that he is going to Ukraine to push for investigations related to the Bidens and the 2016 election “because that information will be very, very helpful to my client, and may turn out to be helpful to my government.”

May 11, 2019: After public pressure, Giuliani cancels his trip to Ukraine.

Separately, Yuriy Lutsenko tells Zelensky that he wishes to be Prosecutor General of Ukraine.

May 13, 2019: William Barr opens a probe into the origins of the Russia investigation, appointing U.S. attorney John Durham to lead it.

Mid-May 2019: Trump tells Pence not to attend Zelensky’s Presidential inauguration, and instead sends Energy Secretary Rick Perry.

May 16, 2019: Yuriy Lutsenko announces that there is no evidence of wrongdoing by the Bidens.

May 19, 2019: In an interview with Fox News, Trump claims that “Biden, he calls them [Ukraine] and says, ‘Don’t you dare persecute, if you don’t fire this prosecutor’ – The prosecutor was after his son. Then he said, ‘If you fire the prosecutor, you’ll be okay. And if you don’t fire the prosecutor, ‘We’re not giving you $2 billion in loan guarantees,’ or whatever he was supposed to give. Can you imagine if I did that?”

May 20, 2019: Volodymyr Zelensky is inaugurated President of Ukraine. Shortly afterward, Giuliani meets with allies of Lutsenko.

May 23, 2019: The Trump Administration notifies Congress that it plans to release hundreds of millions of dollars worth of aid that Congress had authorized for Ukraine.

Separately, Trump meets with acting White House Chief of Staff Mick Mulvaney, Secretary of Energy Rick Perry, Ambassador to the EU Gordon Sondland, and U.S. Special Envoy to Ukraine Kurt Volker, putting them in charge of back-channel diplomacy with Ukraine, and urging them to “talk with Rudy.”

May 28, 2019: U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo appoints William Taylor to replace Marie Yovanovitch.

May 29, 2019: Trump sends Zelensky a letter congratulating him and inviting him to a meeting at the White House.

June 13, 2019: In an interview with ABC News’ George Stephanopoulos, President Trump publicly announces, regarding electoral assistance from a foreign government, “I think you might want to listen, there isn’t anything wrong with listening. If somebody called from a country, Norway – ‘We have information on your opponent’ – oh, I think I’d want to hear it.” This would be illegal, as the Chairwoman of the Federal Election Commission tweets shortly afterward.

June 18, 2019: The U.S. Department of Defense publicly announces that it will be giving $250 million in military aid to Ukraine.

June 21, 2019: Giuliani tweets that Zelensky is “still silent on investigation of Ukrainian interference in 2016 election and alleged Biden bribery of Pres Poroshenko.”

June 27, 2019: Gordon Sondland tells Ambassador Taylor that Zelensky needs to make clear to President Trump that he is not holding back “investigations.”

June 28, 2019: Before Sondland, Volker, Taylor and Perry have a planned call with Zelensky, Sondland says that he does not want regular interagency officials on the call and does not want anyone monitoring or transcribing the call, according to Taylor.

July 3, 2019: Ukraine aid is put on hold.

July 10, 2019: Top Ukrainian defense official Oleksandr Danyliuk meets with Sondland, Volker, Perry and White House National Security Adviser John Bolton in Washington DC. Bolton cuts the meeting short when Sondland begins requesting specific investigations in exchange for a meeting between Trump and Zelensky.

Separately, Zelensky’s Chief of Staff, Andriy Bohdan and Foreign Policy Adviser Vadym Prystaiko tell Ambassador Taylor that Rudolph Giuliani had told them that a phone call between Trump and Zelensky was unlikely.

July 18, 2019: The decision to withhold the Ukraine aid is relayed to the State Department and Defense Department. Congress is told that the hold is part of an “interagency delay.”

July 19, 2019: Volker texts Sondland about the upcoming Zelensky call with Trump: “Most impt is for Zelensky to say that he will help investigation.”

July 20, 2019: Danyliuk tells Taylor that Zelensky does not wish to be a pawn in a U.S. political campaign.

July 21, 2019: Taylor texts Sondland: “President Zelensky is sensitive about Ukraine being taken seriously, not merely as an instrument in Washington domestic, reelection politics.”

July 23, 2019: The Office of Management and Budget reiterates that the Ukraine aid is frozen.

July 24, 2019: Robert Mueller testifies before Congress about the findings in his report.

July 25, 2019: Before a scheduled call between Trump and Zelensky, Volker texts Zelensky aide Andriy Yermak: “Heard from White House-assuming President Z convinces trump he will investigate / ‘get to the bottom of what happened’ in 2016, we will nail down date for visit to Washington.”

Later Trump and Zelensky have their phone call. According to a rough White House transcript, Trump comments on how “good” the United States has been to Ukraine and then asks Zelensky to open an investigation into CrowdStrike and an investigation into the Bidens.

After the call, Yermak texts Volker: “Phone call went well. President Trump proposed to choose any convenient dates. President Zelenskiy chose 20,21,22 September for the White House Visit.”

Also 91 minutes after the call. Michael Duffey at the White House Office of Management and Budget emails other OMB and Pentagon officials “please hold off on any additional DoD obligations of these [Ukraine Security Assistance Initiative[ funds.”

Separately, State Department staff emails indicate that the Ukrainian embassy is asking about the hold on U.S. military assistance.

July 26, 2019: Ambassadors Volker and Sondland meet with Zelensky in Ukraine, and Zelensky asks about a White House meeting (Whistleblower complaint).

David Holmes, Counselor for Political Affairs at the US Embassy in Ukraine, has lunch with Sondland and two staffers at a restaurant in Kyiv, Ukraine, and overhears a cell phone call between Sondland and Trump in which they discuss Zelensky’s willingness to “do the investigations.”

Within days of July 25: Senior White House officials “lock down” all records of the Trump-Zelensky phone call – especially the official word-for-word transcript of the call – on a secure server reserved for highly sensitive national security matters, rather than in the normal documentation archive where call transcripts are normally stored.

July 28, 2019: Director of National Intelligence Dan Coates resigns.

July 31, 2019: First reported by Russia, Trump has a phone call with Vladimir Putin.

August 2, 2019: Giuliani and Parnas meet with Zelensky aide Yermak in Madrid, Spain, where Giuliani tells Yermak that Zelensky’s government needs to investigate Hunter Biden. Yermak expresses openness to the idea (Whistleblower complaint).

August 3, 2019: Zelensky announces plans to meet with Trump in Washington in September.

August 8, 2019: Trump appoints Joseph Maguire as new Director of National Intelligence.

August 9, 2019: Trump tells reporters on the South Lawn of the White House, “I think he’s [Zelensky’s] going to make a deal with President Putin, and he will be invited to the White House. And we look forward to seeing him. He’s already been invited to the White House, and he wants to come. And I think he will. He’s a very reasonable guy. He wants to see peace in Ukraine. And I think he will be coming very soon, actually.”

Separately, Volker and Sondland text each other and consult with Giuliani about a statement that Ukraine could make about the investigations. Sondland notes that Trump “really wants the deliverable.”

August 10, 2019: Zelensky aide Yermak texts Volker that Ukraine wants a firm date for Zelensky’s White House visit before publicly making the statement about investigations: “I think it’s possible to make this declaration and mention all these things. Which we discussed yesterday. But it will be logic to do after we receive a confirmation of date. We inform about date of visit and about our expectations and our guarantees for future visit.”

August 11, 2019: Sondland emails Ulrich Brechbuhl and Lisa Kenna at the U,S, State Department: “Kurt & I negotiated a statement from Ze to be delivered for our review in a day or two. The contents will hopefully make the boss happy enough to authorize an invitation. Ze plans to have a big presser on the openness subject (including specifics) next week.” Kenna replies: “I’ll pass to S. Thank you.”

August 12, 2019: The Whistleblower submits a complaint with Intelligence Community Inspector General Michael Atkinson, describing numerous officials being concerned about the July 25 phone call and subsequent White House efforts to conceal the call transcript.

August 13, 2019: Volker and Sondland text about what language should be in the statement from Ukraine.

August 15, 2019: Dan Coats officially leaves his position as Director of National Intelligence.

August 16, 2019: Volker texts Taylor saying that Yermak has asked the U.S. government to file an official request for the Burisma investigation (Taylor’s testimony). Taylor gives Volker the name of a Deputy Assistant Attorney General to ask if such a request is proper.

August 17, 2019: Sondland texts Volker: “Do we still want Ze to give us an unequivocal draft with 2016 and Boresma?” Volker replies: “That’s the clear message so far …”

August 21, 2019: Taylor asks Ulrich Brechbuhl, Counselor to Secretary of State Pompeo, if there is an official change to U.S. policy toward Ukraine, and Brechbuhl responds that there is not (Taylor’s testimony).

August 22, 2019: NSC aide Tim Morrison advises Ambassador Taylor that it “remains to be seen” if U.S. policy toward Ukraine has changed, adding that the “president doesn’t want to provide any assistance at all” (Taylor’s testimony)

August 22, 2019: Sondland emails Secretary of State Pompeo and Executive Secretary Lisa Kenna: “Should we block time in Warsaw for a short pull-aside for Potus to meet Zelensky? I would ask Zelensky to look him in the eye and tell him that once Ukraine’s new justice folks are in place (mid-Sept), that Ze should be able to move forward publicly and with confidence on those issues of importance to Potus and to the US. Hopefully, that will break the logjam.” Pompeo responds: “Yes.”

August 26, 2019: Atkinson informs acting Director of National Intelligence Joseph Maguire of the Whistleblower complaint, describing it as “credible” and of “urgent concern,” which by law is supposed to trigger Maguire to forward the complaint to the House and Senate Intelligence Committees.

August 28, 2019: Politico makes public for the first time that the Trump Administration is withholding $250 million in military aid from Ukraine.

August 29, 2019: Yermak texts Volker a link to the Politico story, saying: “Need to talk with you.” Volker responds: “Hi Andrey — absolutely. When is good for you?”

Yermak also contacts Taylor, who is “embarrassed” that he has no explanation (Taylor’s testimony).

At Bolton’s suggestion, Taylor send a cable to Pompeo stating that it is “folly” withhold the aid at a time when Russia is engaging in military aggression in Ukraine.

August 30, 2019: Sondland tells Sen. Ron Johnson (R-WI) that Trump is withholding the Ukraine aid to “get to the bottom of what happened in 2016 – if President Trump has that confidence, then he’ll release the military spending,” (Johnson interview with Wall Street Journal).

August 31, 2019: Johnson tries to convince Trump to release the military aid. Trump says that the delay is in part because he believes that Ukraine interfered in the 2016 election.

September 1, 2019: At a meeting in Warsaw, Sondland tells Yermak  that the aid will not be released until Zelensky promises to investigate Burisma (Taylor, Kent, Morrison and Sondland testimonies). Sondland clarifies later in testimony that “in the absence of any [other] credible explanation.” he “presumed” that the two issues were linked, and that Trump had not directly told him that they were linked.

Separately, Taylor tells Kent that Sondland has told Yermak, “POTUS wanted nothing less than President Zelensky to go to [a] microphone and say ‘investigations,’ ‘Biden,’ and ‘Clinton.’” (Kent’s testimony)

Separately, before a meeting between Vice President Pence and President Zelensky in Warsaw, Taylor tells Ukraine defense adviser Danyliuk that the military aid must be released by the end of September – the end of the fiscal year – or the funds will expire. (Taylor’s testimony). Pence meets with Zelensky (Trump was originally scheduled to attend) and tells Zelensky that Trump wants Ukraine to do more to root out corruption and wants the EU to do more to help Ukraine, but that he will talk to Trump about the military aid (readout from Morrison)

Separately, Taylor texts Sondland: “Are we now saying that security assistance and WH meeting are conditioned on investigations?” Sondland replies, “Call me.” By phone, Sondland explains that Trump wants Zelensky to publicly announce that Ukraine will investigate Burisma and Ukraine’s alleged role in the 2016 election. (Taylor’s testimony)

September 2, 2019: At a press conference in Poland, a reporter asks Pence “Can you assure Ukraine that the hold-up of that money [military aid] has absolutely nothing to do with efforts, including by Rudy Giuliani, to try to dig up dirt on the Biden family?” Pence says that he and Zelensky only discussed corruption in general.

Separately, Danyliuk expresses concern to Morrison about the lack of answers from the U.S. about the military aid. (Taylor’s testimony)

Separately, Ukrainian Defense Minister Andriy Zagorodnyuk expresses concern to Taylor about the same thing. (Taylor’s testimony)

September 3, 2019: Five bipartisan senators write to Office of Management and Budget Director Mick Mulvaney to expressing “deep concerns” about the freeze on the $400 million dollars in Congressionally approved aid for Ukraine.

September 5, 2019: Sen. Ron Johnson (R-WI) and Sen. Chris Murphy (D-CT) meet with Zelensky and Taylor in Ukraine. Zelensky asks about the military aid and expresses concern about Giuliani.

Separately, the Washington Post reports that it has been “reliably told” that President Trump was “attempting to force Mr. Zelensky to intervene in the 2020 U.S. presidential election by launching an investigation of the leading Democratic candidate, Joe Biden.”

September 7, 2019: By phone, Sondland asks Trump directly what he wants from Ukraine. Trump answers, “I want nothing! No quid pro quo,” but says that Zelensky needs to announce the two investigations. Morrison informs NSC lawyers about the call. (Taylor’s and Morrison’s testimonies)

September 8, 2019: Sondland tells Taylor that Trump wants Zelensky to “clear things up and do it in public,” that Sondland told Zelensky and Yermak that it wasn’t a quid pro quo, but that if they didn’t “clear things up” publicly, there would be a “stalemate.” Sondland tells Taylor that Trump is a businessman, and that before a businessman signs a check, he expects someone who owes him something to pay up. (Taylor’s testimony) Taylor texts Volker and Sondland: “The nightmare is they give the interview and don’t get the security assistance. The Russians love it. (And I quit.)”

September 9, 2019: Intelligence Community Inspector General Michael Atkinson notifies the House and Senate Intelligence Committees that the Whistleblower filed a complaint with him on August 12, but does not say what the complaint was about.

Separately, Taylor texts Sondland: “As I said on the phone, I think it’s crazy to withhold security assistance for help with a political campaign.”

Sondland talks with Trump by phone and Trump reiterates, “I want nothing. I want nothing. I want no quid pro quo. Tell Zelensky to do the right thing.” (Sondland’s testimony)

Sondland texts Taylor: “Bill, I believe you are incorrect about President Trump’s intentions. The President has been crystal clear no quid pro quo’s of any kind. The President is trying to evaluate whether Ukraine is truly going to adopt the transparency and reforms that President Zelensky promised during his campaign I suggest we stop the back and forth by text If you still have concerns I recommend you give Lisa Kenna or S a call to discuss them directly. Thanks.”

Separately, the House Foreign Affairs Committee, Intelligence Committee, and Oversight Committee announce an investigation into Rudolph Giuliani’s efforts in Ukraine and the Trump Administration’s freeze on the aid to Ukraine.

September 10, 2019: House Intelligence Committee Chairman Adam Schiff (D-CA) demands that acting Director of National Intelligence Joseph Maguire turn over the Whistleblower complaint to Congress, as is standard procedure and required by statute.

Separately, Trump tweets that he has asked John Bolton to resign. Bolton states that he offered first.

September 11, 2019: The Trump Administration finally releases the aid to Ukraine, and Taylor informs Zelensky of the development.

September 12, 2019: Concerned by information from Sondland that Zelensky will announce the investigations on CNN, Taylor contacts Danyliuk, who assures Taylor that there will be no CNN interview. Yermak, however, appears “uncomfortable” with the question. (Taylor’s testimony)

September 13, 2019: Schiff makes public the existence of the Whistleblower complaint, and subpoenas Maguire for it. According to Schiff, the DNI is refusing to provide the Whistleblower complaint because of confidential and potentially privileged communications by people outside the intelligence community. That description would fit the President.

September 17, 2019: Maguire refuses to testify or give Congress the Whistleblower complaint. According to Schiff, Maguire has said that he cannot do so “because he is being instructed not to, that this involved a higher authority, someone above.”

September 18, 2019: The Washington Post reports that the Whistleblower complaint was “made by an intelligence official and centers on Ukraine” and that it “involved communications with a foreign leader and a ‘promise’ that Trump made.”

Separately, Pence talks with Zelensky on the phone in what is described as a perfunctory call. However, Pence’s office says that the call is classified. (Vindman’s testimony)

September 18 or 19, 2019: Zelensky cancels an interview that had been planned with CNN.

September 19, 2019: In a closed-door session, Intelligence Community Inspector General Michael Atkinson informs Congress that the Whisteblower complaint involves multiple events.

Separately, on CNN, Giuliani claims that the President did nothing wrong, but states that “It is perfectly appropriate for [Trump] to ask a foreign government to investigate this massive crime that was made by a former vice president.”

September 20, 2019: The Wall Street Journal reports that the Whistleblower alleged that Trump “repeatedly pressured the president of Ukraine to investigate Joe Biden’s son.”

September 23, 2019: President Trump describes his reason for withholding the aid from Ukraine: “If you don’t talk about corruption, why would you give money to a country that you think is corrupt?”

September 24, 2019: Trump describes his reason for withholding the aid from Ukraine as being about other European countries not paying enough for Ukraine’s military aid. He also announces that he will release a transcript of the July 25 phone call with Zelensky.

Separately, House Speaker Nancy Pelosi (D-CA) publicly announces that “the House of Representatives is moving forward with an official impeachment inquiry.”

September 25, 2019: The White House releases a rough transcript of the July 25 call between Trump and Zelensky.

On the sidelines of the United Nations General Assembly in New York, Trump meets with Zelensky, who states publicly that he did not feel “pressure” to pursue investigations and that he has not halted any investigations in Ukraine. “We have an independent country and independent [Prosecutor General]. I can’t push anyone. That is the answer. I didn’t call somebody or the new [Prosecutor General]. I didn’t ask him. I didn’t push him.”  Zelensky also points out that, although he has been invited to the White House, Trump has never actually identified a date for such a visit.

September 26, 2016: The White House declassifies the Whistleblower complaint and Schiff releases it. It describes secondhand knowledge of Trump’s call with Zelensky and an effort to cover it up.

Separately, acting Director of National Intelligence Joseph Maguire testifies to the House Intelligence Committee that the Justice Department’s Office of Legal Counsel downgraded the Inspector General’s assessment that the Whistleblower complaint described an “urgent concern,” and that Maguire was therefore not required to share it with Congress. Because the complaint includes alleged involvement of Attorney General William Barr – head of the Justice Department – Democrats suspect a conflict of interest in the revised assessment.

September 27, 2019: Special Envoy to Ukraine Kurt Volker resigns.

Separately, over 300 former U.S. national security and foreign policy officials sign a statement supporting the impeachment investigation.

September 28, 2019: Michael McKinley, a top aide of U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo, rallies support for a statement from the State Department strongly supporting Ambassador Yovanovitch, but State Department spokeswoman Morgan Ortagus says that Pompeo will not release such a statement, out of concern that the department “not draw undue attention to her.”  (McKinley’s closed door testimony)

October 1, 2019: Pompeo sends a letter to House Democrats stating that five State Department employees who had been summoned for depositions would not appear. One of them is Marie Yovanovitch. Pompeo calls the inquiry “an attempt to intimidate, bully, and treat improperly, the distinguished professionals of the Department of State.”

Separately, the New York Times reports that before filing the report, the Whistleblower had approached a staffer for Schiff’s committee to find out how to move forward. Some have said that this contradicts Schiff’s claims that he had not spoken to the Whistleblower personally.

October 2, 2019: Steve Linick, State Department Inspector General, gives Congress documents sent to the State Department that contain conspiracy theories about the Bidens. Giuliani admits that he was the original source of some of the materials, which had been provided to the State Department by the White House.

October 3, 2019: Responding to a deposition from Congress, Kurt Volker provides records of his text messages with Taylor, Sondland, Giuliani and Yermak. Volker also testifies before the House Intelligence Committee in closed-door session.

Separately, a reporter asks the President, “Mr. President, what exactly did you hope Zelensky would do about the Bidens after your phone call?” Trump answers, “Well, I would think that, if they were honest about it, they’d start a major investigation into the Bidens,” adding “And by the way, likewise, China should start an investigation into the Bidens because what happened in China is just about as bad as what happened with Ukraine.”

Separately, the State Department informs Congress that it has approved the sale of 150 Javelin missiles to Ukraine for $39.2 million.

October 6, 2019: The Whistleblower’s attorneys say that they now represent a second Whistleblower who has firsthand knowledge of key events, and who has spoken with Atkinson (a legal requirement for obtaining whistleblower status).

October 8, 2019: White House counsel Pat Cipollone notifies Congress that the White House will not cooperate with the impeachment inquiry.

October 10, 2019: Lev Parnas and Igor Fruman, associates of Rudolph Giuliani are arrested as they attempt to leave the country and are indicted by the Southern District of New York on campaign finance charges, accused of funneling foreign money into U.S. politics to influence U.S.-Ukraine relations.

Separately, Pompeo aide Michael McKinley resigns over Pompeo’s lack of support State Department officials in Ukraine.

October 11, 2019: Former US Ambassador to Ukraine Marie Yovanovitch testifies before the House Intelligence Committee in closed-door session.

October 14, 2019: Former White House Adviser, Former Senior Director for European and Russian Affairs Fiona Hill testifies before the House Intelligence Committee in closed-door session.

October 15, 2019: Deputy Assistant U.S. Secretary of State for Eastern Europe and the Caucuses George Kent testifies before the House Intelligence Committee in closed-door session.

October 16, 2019: Top Aide to U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo Michael McKinley testifies before the House Intelligence Committee in closed-door session.

October 17, 2019: U.S. Ambasador to the European Union Gordon Sondland testifies before the House Intelligence Committee in closed-door session.

October 17, 2019: President Trump announces that U.S. Secretary of Energy Rick Perry will resign by the end of the year.

October 17, 2019: In a news conference, White House Chief of Staff Mick Mulvney states, “[Did Trump] also mention to me, in the past, that the corruption related to the DNC server? Absolutely, no question about that. But that’s it. And that’s why we held up the money… The look back to what happened in 2016 certainly was part of the thing that he was worried about in corruption with that nation. And that is absolutely appropriate.” After being confronted with the fact that this would be a “quid pro quo,” Mulvaney later says that there was no connection between the aid and investigations.

October 22, 2019: Acting U.S. Ambassador to Ukraine William Taylor testifies before the House Intelligence Committee in closed-door session.

October 23, 2019: Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Russian, Ukrainian, and Eurasian affairs in the office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy Laura Cooper testifies before the House Intelligence Committee in closed-door session. Her testimony is delayed for five hours when House Republicans storm the secure room where she is testifying, claiming that they have been shut out of the process. The move violates security policy and is contradicted by the fact that many Republicans on the Intelligence Committee simply chose not to participate.

October 29, 2019: Lt. Col Alexander Vindman, National Security Counsel Ukraine Expert and Director for European Affairs testifies before the House Intelligence Committee in closed-door session.

October 30, 2019: State Department official Catherine Croft testifies before the House Intelligence Committee in closed-door session.

Separately, State Department official  Christopher Anderson testifies before the House Intelligence Committee in closed-door session.

Separately, Deputy Secretary of State John Sullivan, in his confirmation hearing to become ambassador to Russia says he knew of a smear campaign against Marie Yovanovitch that he believed Giuliani was involved in.

October 31, 2019: White House Senior Director for European Affairs Tim Morrison testifies before the House Intelligence Committee in closed-door session.

Separately, the House votes on a formalized impeachment process, including public hearings, in response to Republican criticism that the process is secretive. Two Democrats vote against the measure, as do all House Republicans.

November 4, 2019: The House Intelligence Committee releases transcripts of the closed-door testimonies of Marie Yovanovitch and Michael McKinley.

Separately, Sondland clarifies his testimony to acknowledge he communicated a quid pro quo to Ukraine on July 10, but that he did so based on a presumption of what Trump wanted, rather than a direct order from Trump.

November 5, 2019: The House Intelligence Committee releases transcripts of the closed-door testimonies of Gordon Sondland and Kurt Volker.

November 6, 2019: The House Intelligence Committee releases the transcript of the closed-door testimony of William Taylor.

November 7, 2019: The House Intelligence Committee releases the transcript of the closed-door testimony of George Kent.

November 8, 2019: The House Intelligence Committee releases transcripts of the closed-door testimonies of Alexander Vindman and Fiona Hill.

Separately, John Bolton’s lawyer informs Congress that his client was “part of many relevant meetings and conversations,” but that Bolton will only testify if he is ordered by a judge.

November 13, 2019: Taylor and Kent testify before the House Intelligence Committee in a televised public hearing.

November 15, 2019: Yovanovitch testifies before the House Intelligence Committee in a televised public hearing. During her testimony, Trump tweets disparagingly about her, which she perceives as intimidating.

Later, Counselor for Political Affairs at the US Embassy in Ukraine David Holmes testifies before the House Intelligence Committee in closed-door session.

November 19, 2019: Vindman and Williams testify in the morning before the House Intelligence Committee in a televised public hearing.

Volker and Morrison testify in the afternoon before the House Intelligence Committee in a televised public hearing.

November 20, 2019: Sondland testifies before the House Intelligence Committee in a televised public hearing.

Later, Hale and Cooper testify before the House Intelligence Committee in a televised public hearing.

November 21, 2019:  Hill and Holmes testify before the House Intelligence Committee in a televised public hearing.

December 2, 2019:  Republicans on the House Intelligence Committee release a report of their findings based on the hearings.

December 3, 2019:  The House Intelligence Committee releases its official Report on the Impeachment Hearings.

December 13, 2019: The House Judiciary approves Articles of Impeachment against President Trump.

December 16, 2019: The House Judiciary Committee releases its Full Report on the Impeachment of Donald Trump.

For more info, visit Trump-Ukraine Central

– rob rünt

Who Testified in the House Impeachment Hearings?

Who Testified in the House Impeachment Hearings?

Who Testified?

DAY 1: Wednesday, November 13, 2019

William Taylor
Acting U.S. Ambassador to Ukraine
Full Transcript of Testimony
(Called to testify by Democrats on House Intelligence Committee)

  • Witnessed an official and unofficial channel of US diplomacy in Ukraine
  • Was on June 28, 2019 interagency phone call with Zelensky, Sondland, Volker, and Perry
  • Was on July 18, 2019 NSC conference call where OMB staffer said that Ukraine aid was being withheld by Trump.
  • Attended July 26, 2019 meeting with Zelensky and Volker
  • Attended September 5, 2019 meeting with Zelensky an US Senators Johnson and Murphy
  • Communicated with Volker and Sondland numerous times

George Kent

Deputy Assistant U.S. Secretary of State for Eastern Europe and the Caucuses
Full Transcript of Testimony
(Called to testify by Democrats on House Intelligence Committee)

  • Had knowledge of activities by Rudy Giuliani

DAY 2: Friday, November 15, 2019

Marie/Masha Yovanovitch

Former US Ambassador to Ukraine
Full Transcript of Testimony
(Called to testify by Democrats on House Intelligence Committee)

  • Had direct knowledge of the change in U.S. policy toward Ukraine
  • Was fired by Trump Administration on advice from Giuliani and former Ukrainian Prosecutor General Yuriy Lutsenko

DAY 3: Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Jennifer Williams

Official at the State Department detailed to Vice President Mike Pence
Full Transcript of Testimony
(Called to testify by Democrats on House Intelligence Committee)


  • Was on April 23, 2019 congratulatory phone call from Pence to Zelensky
  • Was on July 25, 2019 phone call between President Trump and President Zelensky.
  • Attended a September 1, 2019 meeting between Pence and Zelensky in Poland

U.S. Lt. Col. Alexander Vindman

National Security Counsel Ukraine Expert, Director for European Affairs
Full Transcript of Testimony
(Called to testify by Democrats on House Intelligence Committee)

  • Produced Trump’s preparation materials for April 21, 2019 congratulatory call with President Zelensky was on that call.
  • Attended the inauguration of President Zelensky as part of the presidential delegation led by Secretary Perry.
  • Attended July 10, 2019 meeting with Oleksandr Danylyuk, then Ukraine’s National Security Advisor in Washington DC with National Security Advisor Bolton, Ambassadors Volker and Sondland, and Secretary Rick Perry.
  • Was on July 25, 2019 phone call between President Trump and President Zelensky.

Kurt Volker

Former US Special Envoy to Ukraine
Full Transcript of Testimony
(Called to testify by Republicans on House Intelligence Committee)


  • Had knowledge of activities by Rudy Giuliani
  • Led July 2, 2019 meeting in Toronto with Zelensky
  • Attended July 10, 2019 meeting with Oleksandr Danylyuk, then Ukraine’s National Security Advisor in Washington DC with National Security Advisor Bolton, Ambassador Sondland and Secretary Rick Perry.

Tim Morrison

White House Senior Director for European Affairs
Full Transcript of Testimony
(Called to testify by Republicans on House Intelligence Committee)

  • Replaced Fiona Hill at NSC

DAY 4: Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Gordon Sondland

U.S. Ambassador to the European Union
Full Transcript of Testimony
(Called to testify by Democrats on House Intelligence Committee)

  • Donated $1 million to President Trump’s inauguration fund
  • Was actively involved in efforts to convince Ukraine to investigate Biden’s and Crowdstrike (despite his official role not covering Ukraine)
  • Spoke directly with President Trump about investigations

Laura Cooper
Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Russia, Ukraine, Eurasia
Full Transcript of Testimony

David Hale

Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs
Full Transcript of Testimony

DAY 5: Thursday, November 21, 2019

David Holmes

Counselor for Political Affairs at the US Embassy in Ukraine
Full Transcript of Testimony
(Called to testify by Democrats on House Intelligence Committee)

  • Had firsthand knowledge of efforts by Giuliani and Lutsenko to oust Ambassador Yovanovitch
  • Had other knowledge of activities by Rudy Giuliani
  • Overheard July 26, 2019 phone call between President Trump and Gordon Sondland during lunch with two other staffers
    • Photo: Jose Luis Magana, AP

Fiona Hill

Former White House Adviser, Former Senior Director for European and Russian Affairs
Full Transcript of Testimony
(Called to testify by Democrats on House Intelligence Committee)

  • Interacted regularly with U.S. National Security Adviser John. Bolton and Gordon Sondland
  • Attended July 10, 2019 meeting with Oleksandr Danylyuk, then Ukraine’s National Security Advisor in Washington D.C with National Security Advisor Bolton, Ambassadors Volker and Sondland, and Secretary Rick Perry.

For more info, visit Trump-Ukraine Central

– rob rünt

A Central Hub for Impeachment Info

A Central Hub for Impeachment Info

This page seeks to compile all Trump-Ukraine impeachment-related information in one place, and will be updated as events unfold.




– rob rünt